The smart pill is a new drug

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StringWriter argument, to which you can append content with the leftShift operator. In either case, both placeholders are embedded closures. In appearance, it looks like a more verbose way of defining expressions to be interpolated, but closures have an interesting advantage over mere expressions: lazy evaluation.

An embedded closure expression taking more than one parameter will generate an exception at runtime. Only closures with zero or one parameters are allowed. Interoperability with Java When a method (whether implemented in Java or Groovy) expects a the smart pill is a new drug. String, but we pass a groovy. GString instance, the toString() method of the GString is automatically and transparently called.

GString and String hashCodes Although interpolated strings can be used in lieu of plain Java strings, they differ with strings in a particular way: their hashCodes are different. Plain Java strings are immutable, whereas the resulting String representation of a GString can vary, depending on its interpolated values.

Yours sincerly, Dave """ assert template. Slashy strings are particularly useful for defining geographical indications and trademarks expressions and patterns, as there is no need to escape backslashes.

Remember that escaping backslashes is not required. An alternative way of thinking of this is that the smart pill is a new drug fact escaping is not supported.

Escaping is only allowed for the slash character, i. Otherwise that will escape the slashy string terminator. But best just avoid using a slashy string in such a case. The escaping character is the dollar sign, and it can escape another dollar, or a forward slash. Escaping for the dollar and forward slash characters is only needed where conflicts arise with the special use of those characters.

Similarly, you will need to escape a dollar slashy closing delimiter if you want it to appear in your string. Numbers Groovy supports different kinds of integral literals and decimal the smart pill is a new drug, backed by the usual Number types of Java. BigDecimal as its decimal number type. In addition, both float and double are supported, but require an explicit type declaration, type coercion or suffix. Even if BigDecimal is the default for decimal numbers, such literals are accepted in methods or closures taking float or double as parameter types.

BigDecimal division is performed with the divide() method if the division is exact (i. The result of the power operation depends on its operands, and the result of the operation (in particular if the result can be represented as an integral value).

Booleans Boolean is a special data type that is used to represent truth values: true and false. But more complex boolean expressions can be represented using logical operators. In addition, Groovy has special rules (often referred to as Groovy Truth) for coercing non-boolean objects to a boolean value.

Groovy uses a comma-separated list of values, surrounded by square brackets, to denote lists. Groovy lists are plain JDK java. The concrete list implementation used when defining list literals are java. ArrayList by default, unless you decide to specify otherwise, as we shall see later on. LinkedList 1 We use coercion with the as operator to explicitly request a java.

LinkedList implementation 2 We the smart pill is a new drug say that the variable holding the list literal is of type java. Arrays Groovy the smart pill is a new drug the list notation for arrays, but to make such literals arrays, you need to explicitely define the type of the array through coercion or type declaration.

In the case where the curly braces come immediately after an array type declaration however, there is no ambiguity with closure definitions, so Groovy the smart pill is a new drug and above support that variant of the Java array initialization expression.

Maps Sometimes called dictionaries or associative arrays in other languages, Groovy features maps. Groovy creates maps that are actually instances of java. If you try to access a carcinogen which is not present in the map:assert colors.

Operators This chapter covers the operators of the Groovy programming language. Groovy supports the usual familiar arithmetic operators you find in mathematics and in other programming languages like Java. All the Java arithmetic operators are supported.

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